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    印刷中色彩影响的几个方面!
    来源: 2018-12-20 13:08:59
    在画册印刷过程中,导致专色油墨出产色差的要素很多,下面临这些要素别离进行讨论。
    In the process of album printing, there are many factors leading to color difference in spot-color ink production. Next, we will discuss these factors separately.
    1.纸张对色彩的影响
    1. The influence of paper on color
    纸张对墨层色彩的影响首要表现在3个方面。
    The influence of paper on ink color is mainly manifested in three aspects.
    (1)纸张白度:白度不同(或带有一定色彩)的纸张,对深圳印刷墨层的色彩闪现有不同的影响。对同一种白板纸而言,白度不同,印刷墨层的色彩差异首要表现在专色墨中黑墨成分的多少,尤其是对明度在70以上的色彩,影响特别显着,构成专色墨的配比差别很大。因此,在实际出产中应尽量选用白度相同的纸张印刷,以减小纸张白度对印刷色彩的影响。
    (1) Paper whiteness: Paper with different whiteness (or a certain color) has different effects on the color flash of Shenzhen printing ink layer. For the same kind of white board paper, whiteness is different, the color difference of printing ink layer is mainly reflected in the amount of black ink components in spot ink, especially for the color with brightness above 70, the influence is particularly significant, and the proportion of spot ink is very different. Therefore, in order to reduce the influence of paper whiteness on printing color, the paper with the same whiteness should be selected as far as possible in actual production.
    (2)吸收性:同一种油墨在相同条件下印刷到吸收性不同的纸张上时,会有不同的印刷光泽。纸张的结构决议了纸张外表存在着由植物纤维构成的凹凸和孔隙,为了使纸面取得良好的均匀性和滑润度,一般要在纸张外表涂布不同厚度的涂料。涂料的性质和厚度决议了纸张外表对油墨的吸收能力。吸收能力不同,必定要使印刷墨层的色彩发生差异。非涂料纸与涂料纸比较,黑色墨层会显得暗淡、无光泽,并且五颜六色墨层会发生漂移,由青色墨和品红色墨调配出的色彩表现最显着。
    (2) Absorption: When the same ink is printed on paper with different absorption under the same conditions, it will have different printing gloss. The structure of paper determines that there are concave, convex and porous surface of paper made of plant fibers. In order to achieve good uniformity and smoothness, coatings of different thicknesses are usually applied on the surface of paper. The nature and thickness of the coatings determine the paper's ability to absorb ink. Absorption capacity is different, the color of printing ink must be different. Compared with coated paper, the black ink layer will appear dull and glossy, and the multicolored ink layer will drift. The color mix of blue ink and magenta ink is the most remarkable.
    (3)光泽度与滑润度:印刷品的光泽度取决于纸张的光泽度与滑润度。印刷用纸的外表归于半光泽外表,尤其是涂料纸。

    (3) Glossiness and smoothness: The glossiness of printed matter depends on the glossiness and smoothness of paper. The appearance of printing paper is attributed to semi-gloss, especially coated paper.

    济南印刷厂

    在五颜六色印刷品上,当光线以45°入射角照射到纸张外表时,约有4%的光会被反射掉,这就是首层外表反射光。而其余入射光穿过油墨层,通过油墨的选择性吸收后,再透过墨层反射出来,进入人眼,被人眼所感知,这就是咱们调查到的色彩。若纸张的光泽度和滑润度较高,则首层外表反射光是做镜面反射,不易进入人眼,此刻调查到的色彩基本就是透过墨层反射出的色彩。若纸张外表粗糙,光泽度低,则首层外表反射光将发生漫反射,此刻咱们看到的色彩是主色光和首层外表反射光发生的混合色。由于这里边含有白光成分,因此下降了主色光的饱和度,所以人们调查印品时感觉色彩变浅,用密度计丈量时密度值下降,明度上升。
    On colorful printed matter, about 4% of the light will be reflected when it reaches the surface of the paper at an incident angle of 45 degrees, which is the first surface reflection. The other incident light passes through the ink layer, selectively absorbed by the ink, then reflects through the ink layer, and enters the human eye, which is perceived by the human eye. This is the color we investigated. If the glossiness and smoothness of paper are high, the first surface reflection is mirror reflection, which is not easy to enter the human eye. At this moment, the color that is investigated is basically the color reflected through the ink layer. If the paper surface is rough and gloss is low, diffuse reflection will occur on the surface of the first layer. The color we see now is a mixture of the main color light and the surface reflection light of the first layer. Because it contains white light, it reduces the saturation of the main color light, so people feel that the color becomes lighter when investigating the prints. When measuring with a densitometer, the density decreases and the brightness increases.
    2.外表处理对色彩的影响
    2. The Effect of Appearance Processing on Color
    包装类产品的外表处理方式首要有覆膜(亮光膜、亚光膜)、上光(罩亮光油、亚光油、UV光油)等。印品通过这些外表处理后,会有不同程度的色相变化和色密度变化。这些变化分为物理变化和化学变化。物理变化首要表现在产品外表添加了镜面反射和漫反射,这对色密度有一定影响。覆亮光膜、罩亮光油和UV油时,色密度添加;覆亚光膜、罩亚光油时,色密度下降。化学变化首要来自覆膜胶、UV底油、UV油内含有的多种有机溶剂,它们会使印刷墨层的色彩发生变化。
    The main ways to deal with the appearance of packaging products are coating (bright film, matte film), polishing (covering bright oil, matte oil, UV light oil) and so on. After these surface treatments, there will be varying degrees of color phase change and color density change. These changes can be divided into physical and chemical changes. Physical changes are mainly manifested in the addition of specular and diffuse reflections to the appearance of the product, which have a certain impact on the color density. When coated with bright film, cover bright oil and UV oil, the color density is added; when coated with matte film and cover matte oil, the color density decreases. Chemical changes mainly come from a variety of organic solvents contained in film coating, UV base oil and UV oil, which can change the color of printing ink.
    3.撤淡剂对色彩的影响
    3. The influence of fading agent on color
    撤淡剂是一种油膏状的无色透明物质,在专色印刷中首要起冲淡色彩的作用。撤淡剂的参加量不同,对色相的影响也不同,尤其是蓝色表现得最显着。
    The fading agent is a kind of opaque transparent substance, which plays an important role in spot color printing. Different amount of diluent has different influence on the color, especially blue.
    在配制专色墨的过程中,匀墨仪、展墨仪对油墨发生的剪切力、压力要比印刷机上的小。在画册印刷时不需参加撤淡剂,但在配墨制作色卡时只要参加撤淡剂,才能打出均匀的专色墨色彩展现卡。在色密度相同情况下,色卡与印刷品呈现出的色彩是存在色差的,这是因为撤淡剂的参加,改变了油墨中颜料的散布状况,使油墨对光的吸收、折射和反射都发生了变化,由此就发生了色差,这种色差是由系统的差异引起的。
    In the process of preparing spot-color ink, the shearing force and pressure of the ink leveller and the ink expander are smaller than those of the printing press. There is no need to take part in fading agent in album printing, but only take part in fading agent when making color cards with ink, can a uniform monochrome color display card be produced. In the case of the same color density, there is a color difference between the color card and the printed matter. This is because the participation of the fading agent changes the dispersion of pigments in the ink, and changes the absorption, refraction and reflection of the ink to light. Thus, the color difference occurs. This color difference is caused by the difference of the system.
    另外,调配专色所用油墨的稳定性、墨层的厚度、称量油墨的准确性、印刷机供墨区的新旧差异、印刷机速、印刷时的上水量等也都会对色差的发生有不同的影响。
    In addition, the stability of ink, the thickness of ink layer, the accuracy of weighing ink, the difference between old and new ink supply area, the speed of printing press and the amount of water used in printing also have different effects on the color difference.
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